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Menya byinshi ku bucuruzi bwakorewe abirabura bajyanwa mu bucakara muri Amerika

Bimwe mu byatumye Abirabura bagaragara ku migabane yindi y’isi itari Afurika, ni ubucuruzi bwabakorewe bakurwa muri Afurika bajyanwa ku migabane itandukanye kugirango bakoreshwe imirimo itandukanye mu mwanya w’amamashini cyane ko cyari igihe isi yari itaratera imbere mu byerekerabye n’ikoranabuhanga.


Benshi birohaga mu mazi aho kugirango bakomeze kubabazwa, nubwo uwafatwaga abigerageza bamwicaga urwanabi.

Iki gikorwa cyo gucuruza abirabura cyakozwe mu bihe bibiri bitandukanye kandi n’abantu batandukanye. Nk’uko abanyamateka nka Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau babivuga, mbere y’ ikinyejana cya 17, Abarabu bo muri Asiya no mu gice gito cy’Uburayi, babonye ko akazi kabo gakeneye amaboko arenze ayo bari bafite bagannye muri Afurika kuhakura abagabo bakomeye bazashobora gukora mu mwanya w’amamashini ndetse n’inyamaswa zakoraga imirimo itandukanye. Batwaye kandi n’abagore bo kurongora cyane ko babonaga bafite uruhu rudasanzwe kandi banabonaga ari rwiza.

Kugirango aba bagabo b’Abirabura babaga bajyanwe batazigera bahirahira kurongora abo bagore babo, babanzaga kubakona.

Uku kurongora Abiraburakazi kw’Abanyaziya kwatumye muri Aziya y’amajyepfo usanga abantu benshi bafite uruhu rwirabura. Nk’uko tubikesha urubuga rwa Wikipedia, iki gikorwa kiswe ubucuruzwi bwo mu burasirazuza kikaba cyarajyanye abirabura bagera kuri miliyoni 17.

Ikindi gihe kitazibagirana ku birabura basoma amateka cyane abo ku mugabane w’Amerika ni igihe abirabura bacuruzwaga guhera mu mwaka w’1441 mu gikorwa cyatangiwe n’Abanyaportugal, Abaholandi, Abafaransa, Abongereza, aho baje muri iki gikorwa nyuma bise icyo mu burengerazuba. Iri curuzwa ry’Abirabura bo muri Afurika ryaje nyuma y’iryari rimaze gukorwa n’Abarabu, ryo ryakozwe noneho n’Abazungu b’abanyaburayi bari bamaze igihe kitari gito bavumbuye umugabane w’Amerika, bakaba barifuzaga abakozi basimbura ba kavukire ku mugabane w’Amerika aribo bitwa Abamerendiye(les Amérindiens-Les Indiens d’Amerique).

Habayeho gushaka ubundi bwoko bwasimbura ubwo kuko babonaga abo b’amerendiye badatanga umusaruro wifuzwaga n’abazungu b’ababanyaburayi cyane ko kubera ibihe bibi bakoreragamo nk’ubushyuhe bukabije bwo mu nganda no mu birombe bapfaga umusubizo.

Ku bw’izo mpamvu bashatse ubwoko bwaba bukomeye cyangwa bwabasha kwihanganira iyo mibereho mibi. Babifashijwemo n’umupadiri wa kiliziya gatolika mu kinyejana cya XVII, bamenye ko muri Afrika hashobora kuba hari abantu bashobora kwihanganira ubuzima bubi.

Mbere yo kubajyana babanzaga kubakona kugira ngo hatagira uzakenera kurongorera mu bucakara, nubwo benshi bahaguye

Muri icyo kinyejana nibwo Abazungu baturutse mu Burayi bazaga muri Afurika bitwaje udukoresho duto duto kandi tw’agaciro gake (les pacotilles) ; byabaga bigizwe ahanini n’indererwamo(miroirs), imyenda yo kwambara, inzoga ziciriritse, imbunda n’ibindi. Ibyo byose byabaga ari ibyo guha abashefu b’Abanyafurika kugirango babahe abantu bajyana gukoresha ku mugabane w’Amerika.

Kuko wasangaga ari ubwa mbere aba bashefu babonye ibi bikoresho bya kizungu byatumaga biva imyuma bagatanga abirabura benshi ku buryo hari ubwo umushefu yahabwaga nk’icupa ry’inzoga mvaburayi nawe agatanga abirabura barenga ijana.

Aba bashefu b’Abanyafurika babanje guhera ku bantu babaga ari inyungu cyangwa abandi bantu babaga barafashwe bunyago mu bihugu byabo. Kubera umubare munini Abazungu batwaraga, byatumye biba ngombwa ko hagurishwa n’abandi batari imfungwa cyangwa abafashwe bunyago. Mu gufata aba birabura habaga gukoresha ingufu zidasanzwe kuko byasabaga kubahiga nk’inyamanswa kuko hari n’ubwo baraswaga.

Mu kujyana aba birabura muri Amerika hifashishwaga ubwato bapakirwagamo ari benshi kandi ku buryo bugerekeranye. Ubu bwato bwamaraga hafi amezi arenga ane mu nzira. Kubera uburyo batwarwagamo byatumaga abarenga icya kabiri cy’abajyanwe bagwa mu nzira.

Abenshi bapfaga bazize inzara abandi bakiroha mu mazi bakeka ko amazi yabasubiza ku mugabane w’Abakurambere babo. Muri abo bapfaga kandi hari abicwaga n’abazungu kuko uwarwaraga yarohwagwa mu nyanja ngo atabagora cyangwa ngo yanduze abandi.

Ku mugabane w’Amerika mu birwa bya Caraïbe, muri Amerika y’amajyepfo n’iy’amajyaruguru hari harashinzwe amasoko akomeye kabuhariwe mu kugurisha abo birabura babaga bakuwe muri Afurika. Muri ayo masoko abantu batandukanye bazaga kugura abantu bakoresha mu mirima y’ibisheke, ikawa, icyayi, kakawo n’ibindi ndetse no mu nganda.

Aba birabura baba abagore cyangwa abagabo uwabaguraga yahitaga abaha amazina ashaka cyane cyane bahabwaga amazina bikurikije agaciro babaga baguzwe kuko urugero hari nk’abitwaga nka ba 50cent, 80cent kuko babaga baguzwe amacent angana atyo. Bahabwaga na none amazina kandi ashingiye ku nyamanswa runaka nk’imbwa n’ibindi urugero ruzwi ni nka Dogg Dogg n’ayandi. Si ukwitwa amazina asuzuguritse gusa kuko babaga bari ku munyururu nk’imbwa ari nako bakubitwa.

Ntihagurishwaga abaturuka muri Afurika gusa kuko n’ababaga bavukiye muri Amerika baba abirabura buzuye cyangwa ibibyaririrane(les métis) babaga bavutse ku buryo bwo gufata ku ngufu abakobwa b’abirabura ; iyo bagezaga imyaka runaka y’ubukure bajyanwaga ku isoko na ba sebuja bakagurishwa ku buryo hari n’ubwo batongeraga guhura n’imiryango yabo ukundi kuko hari ubwo bagurwaga n’umubosi wo muri leta ya kure.


Iyo niyo minyururu bambikwaga

Tukaba turangirije igice cya mbere hano aho tubijeje kuzabazanira vuba igice cya kabiri cy’uburyo bagiye bababaho kugeza bagarutse muri Afurika batuzwa mu gihugu cya Liberiya!

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